Assessment of Montmorillonite Nanoclay-Modified Glass Ionomer Biocompatibility Focusing on Pulp Response

Document Type : Original Article


1 Lecturer of Conservative Dentistry, Faculty of Dentistry, October 6 University, Giza, Egypt

2 Professor of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Oral and Dental Medicine, Cairo University and Faculty of Dentistry, October University for Modern Sciences and Arts, Cairo, Egypt.

3 Lecturer of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology, Faculty of Dentistry. October 6 University, Giza, Egypt


Background and Aim: Incorporation of Montmorillonite (MMT) nanoclays in restorative
materials improves their mechanical properties in addition to biocompatibility, yet little is known
about effects of MMT nanoclay-modified glass ionomer on dental pulp. This study aimed to
evaluate pulp response of MMT nanoclay-modified glass ionomer as viable biocompatible material compared to resin-modified and conventional in dog model. Material and methods: MMT nanoclay was characterized using X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infra-Red Spectroscopy (FTIR). Class V cavities were prepared in 90 dogs’ teeth and divided into 3 groups (n=30): G1: conventional, G2: MMT nanoclay-modified, and G3: resin-modified glass ionomer. Then the jaws were dissected and demineralized at three-time intervals of 7, 30 and 60 days to evaluate the pulp response of the extracted teeth of each group microscopically and statistically using Kruskal Wallis and Friedman tests. Results: MMT nanoclay-modified glass ionomer (G2) group at 7 days was associated with reduced signs of inflammation with lesser interstitial edema, marked thickening of collagen fibers, mild inflammatory cell infiltrate and less destruction of the odontoblastic layer compared to the other two groups. Further healing was observed with nanoclay group after 30 days with significantly reduced inflammation and promoted regeneration of the odontoblastic layer and pulp tissue to reach a normal histological pulp architecture by 60 days. Conclusion: MMT nanoclay-modified glass ionomer is a promising biocompatible material that shows favorable pulp response over both conventional and resin-modified.


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