Document Type : Original Article
Department of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University
Professor and Director of the Nano and Materials Science Program at Zewail City of Science and Technology
Associat Professor of Oral Biology, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University
Assistant Professor, Nanoscience Program, Zewail City of Science and Technology
Professor of Endodontics, Faculty of Dentistry, Mansoura University
Objective: The goal of this work is to investigate and analyze the impact of chitosan (CHT) nanofibrous scaffold in the presence of recombinant transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) growth factor on dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) odontoblastic differentiation for dentin pulp regeneration.
Materials: Dental pulp stem cells (DPSCs) were seeded as a control 2d culture or as a 3d culture on CHT scaffold alone or on CHT scaffold with TGF-β1 growth factor treatment for 21 days. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the morphological features of DPSCs on the CHT scaffold and in the presence of TGF-β1. MTT cytotoxicity assay was applied to test the cell viability on the scaffold. Moreover, Alizarin Red mineralization test was used to detect the calcium deposits in cells seeded as 2d with no treatment or 3d with CHT scaffold and TGF-β1.
Results: Scanning electron microscopy showed DPSCs were able to attach to and multiply on a CHT nanofibrous scaffold surface with more cells extended and long cytoplasmic prolongations with TGF-β1 treatment. CHT scaffold showed a significant increase in the cell viability compared to the control group
after 3, 6, and 9 days (p < 0.05). Calcium deposition was highly observed in DPSCs seeded on CHT scaffold alone or with TGF-β1 treatment than the control group.
Conclusion: Growth factor TGF-β1 played a pivotal role in the differentiation of DPSCs in vitro. It can stimulate odontoblastic differentiation of DPSCs in 3D culture with CHT nanofibrous scaffolds.